Benoit First Nation


Various Mi'kmaq flags and their meanings


Míkmaq Introduction

The Míkmaq are an Indigenous People of the north-eastern woodlands of North America, including: Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick (eastern, northern, and southern), Québec (Gaspé Peninsula), Newfoundland, (western, southern, and eastern), Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, and Maine (north-eastern). Míkmaq land is known as Míkmákik.

The Míkmaq were one of the first Indigenous People of North America to make contact with European visitors, the Norse in 1000 A.D., Basque fishermen in 1372 A.D., Prince Henry Sinclair in 1398 A.D., Bristol fishermen in 1490-93 A.D., Giovanni Caboto in 1497 A.D., Gaspar de Corte-Real in 1500 A.D.

The Míkmaq continue to fight for recognition of their sovereignty, which was never surrendered.

Today there are about 25,000 Status Míkmaq living on and off Reserves in Canada and the U.S.A., and about another 25,000+ Non-Status Míkmaq.

Useful Terms:

Míkmaq - [Nationality] (plural) "The Allies" or "My Kin/Friends"

Míkmaw - [Nationality] (singular) "The Allies" or "My Kin/Friends"

Awitkatultík - [Nation] "Many People Living In One House"

Míkmaq Nation - [Nation] Interchangable with "Awitkatultík"

Santé Mawiómi - [Government] "Holy Gathering" or "Grand Council"
Maqtewékpaqtism, 29 May 2001


Beniot First Nation flag

Penwa Awitkatultík flag

The Míkmaq National flag has four colours, white, red, yellow and black, signifying the four sacred colours.

The flag was first raised in the territory (Port au Port Peninsula, NL.) on July 15, 2005
Jasen Sylvester Benwah


Míkmaq National flag

Mikmaq national flag

The Míkmaq National flag has three colours, white, red, and blue, signifying the three divine persons, The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit.

The cross signifies Christ who was crucified on the Cross.

The letters: N,A,M,T are very significant:

Nin Alasotmoinoi gil Mento Tooe (I am a Catholic, you are a devil, get out)

The flag was first raised in Listukujk (Listuguj, P.Q.) on October 4, 1900 and in Kjipuktuk (Halifax, N.S.) in 1901.
Maqtewékpaqtism, 29 May 2001


Míkmaq State flag

Mikmaq nation flag

Commonly referred to as the Santé Mawiómi flag or the Grand Council flag.

The meaning of the Míkmaq Nation Flag:


Maqtewékpaqtism, 29 May 2001

Smáknisk flag

Smáknisk flag image by Maqtewékpaqtism, 29 May 2001

The Smáknisk (Soldier, Shield-Bearer, or Warrior) flag uses the ancient Komqwejwíkasikl (hieroglyphic) symbol for a Smáknis in the center of the flag.
Maqtewékpaqtism, 29 May 2001


Warriors flag

Warriors flag

This flag was introduced by Míkmaq Smáknisk (Warriors) returning from the Oka Crisis. It resembles the Kanien'kehá:ka Rotiskenraké:te (Mohawk Warriors) flag, with the only the mans head in the center being altered.


Natuaqanek flag

Natuaqanek flag

This is the flag of Natuaqanek (Eel Ground, N.B.) community.
Maqtewékpaqtism, 29 May 2001

Designed by Metepnákiaq (Red Bank, NB) artist Philip Young, and was adopted by Natuaqanek in the mid-1980's.

The circle represents unity and strength of Míkmaq people. The 4 directions represent the 4 seasons and 4 stages of life. The colour red represents strength and power, yellow represents the sun, blue represents the water and the sky, and green represents the natural colours of nature.
Mark Dedam, August 1, 2002


Elsipogtog Band

Elsipogtog Band flag image by Eugene Ipavec, 2 October 2005
Source: Halifax Chronicle Herald

In the 1 October 2005 edition of the Halifax Chronicle Herald was a photograph with the caption:

Steve Simon, Korean War verteran and Mi'kmaq elder, carries the flag of his band, Elsipogtog, formerly Big Cove, N.B., as he and other march in Halifax on Friday.

Although the flag is not entirely visible in the photo, it appears to be a 1:2 length (or longer), the upper 3/5ths white, the bottom 2/5ths blue, green and red bars (the blue bar does appear narrower), and on the white field a large rising sun showing three full rays and two half rays on the "horizon".
Rob Raeside, 1 October 2005


Míkmaq National flag proposal

Mikmaq proposed flag
by Maqtewékpaqtism

This symbol was carved into a rock in Kejimikújik when Awitkatultík (Míkmaq Nation) was formed, when the original seven districts became one Nation. It is a symbol of the uniting of the Míkmaq People into one Nation.


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